San Francisco, California (population 805,235): San Francisco’s first female black city administrator was sworn in at a ceremony at City Hall February 7, according to KRON. Naomi Kelly was nominated last month by Mayor Ed Lee, who swore her in to the post after the city’s Board of Supervisors confirmed the appointment by a unanimous vote this afternoon. Kelly is replacing Amy Brown, who left in January to become city manager in Campbell. Brown had herself replaced Lee, who served as city administrator before being appointed mayor in January 2011 and then being elected in November to stay in office. Lee called Kelly’s appointment “historic,” saying “it’s not lost on me” the significance of swearing in the first black woman to the position during February, which is Black History Month. He said Kelly is “extremely qualified” for the job, having served as deputy city administrator for the past year and as city purchaser and executive director of the city’s Taxicab Commission before that. Kelly said, “We have plenty of work ahead of us” and said she was “very grateful” for the appointment. Kelly, a San Francisco native, has two sons with her husband, Harlan Kelly Jr., who is the assistant general manager of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission.
Henderson, Nevada (population 257,729): Henderson City Manager Mark Calhoun will step down in May, three years after he was appointed to the top administrative position and nearly three decades after he went to work for the city, according to the Las Vegas Review-Journal. Calhoun said the decision was a long time coming. Calhoun in his email said he would work with Mayor Andy Hafen and the City Council as he prepares to leave the position. In 1983 he was hired as the city’s engineer. From there he served as the public works director for 12 years during a time of intense growth. Calhoun was an assistant city manager from 2001 to 2009. In that position he managed the fire, police, public works and utility services departments, according to his biography on the city website. He also managed the city’s economic development and neighborhood services departments. According to the website Transparent Nevada, Calhoun received a base pay of $225,000 in 2010, the latest year figures are available. He replaced Mary Kay Peck, the city’s first and only female city manager. Peck challenged her termination, and the case went to arbitration. She prevailed, winning a settlement worth nearly $1.3 million on Feb. 15, 2011. The city has several options in seeking Calhoun’s replacement because the city manager is an appointed position, according to communications director Bud Cranor. The City Council could conduct a national or local search or hire from within, as was the case with both Calhoun and Peck. One potential candidate is Jacob Snow, general manager of the Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada. Cranor said Mayor Andy Hafen has had conversations with Snow regarding the job. Tracy Bower, a spokeswoman with the Regional Transportation Commission, confirmed Snow has been in discussions with Hafen about the job.
El Cajon, California (population 99,478): Douglas Williford, who worked for the city of Santee for 24 years and recently held jobs in Orange County, has been named El Cajon’s city manager, according to The San Diego Union-Tribune. Williford was chosen from more than 60 applicants nationwide, including acting city manager Rob Turner, El Cajon’s public works director who has been running the city since Kathi Henry’s retirement Aug. 26. Williford, who lives in San Gabriel and got his master’s degree in Urban & Environmental Geography at San Diego State, worked for the city of Santee from 1982 until 2006. He was that city’s deputy city manager and development services director. He will start in El Cajon March 22. In Orange County, he worked as the city of Irvine’s community development director and he currently serves as Deputy Executive Director for the Southern California Association of Governments. The El Cajon City Council voted unanimously to appoint Williford after a closed session Tuesday afternoon to discuss the appointment. City Attorney Morgan Foley said the employment contract for Williford will be similar to Henry’s, who worked in the City Manager’s Office for 30 years and retired with a salary of $240,572. Williford’s salary will be $219,500. He also will receive a maximum of $15,000 to cover moving costs, $120 per month for cellphone service, an automobile allowance of $550 per month, a maximum $2,500 biennially for laptop computers or other equipment, and benefits. Mayor Mark Lewis and the four El Cajon City Council members heaped praise on Turner for his dedication and work for the city over the last few months, including the recent tumult when city redevelopment agencies were axed statewide. El Cajon Councilman Gary Kendrick, who is from Santee, said Williford made great strides for that city. Santee Mayor Randy Voepel said Williford wrote a book about Santee’s history on the occasion of its 25th anniversary.
Reading, Pennsylvania (population 88,082): Carl E. Geffken, the city’s managing director credited with helping clear out numerous City Hall problems, on Tuesday afternoon resigned effective March 15 to take over Berks County operations, according to the Reading Eagle. Geffken, 47, has been named the county’s new chief operating officer, at an annual salary of $100,000. Commissioners Chairman Christian Y. Leinbach confirmed Tuesday night that he and the two other commissioners earlier in the day unanimously agreed to offer Geffken the post, which has been vacant since May, when interim chief Ken Borkey Jr. left. By the end of the workday, Geffken had met with Mayor Vaughn D. Spencer and submitted his resignation, news of which quickly got around City Hall. Leinbach said the county has dealt with Geffken on such issues as the Fire Training Center and the new radio towers that the county needs on city land. Geffken was hired as city finance director in April 2009, was named interim managing director in March 2010, and was approved to the permanent post early in 2011. He said he loved the managing director’s job, but what he called the interest and intrigue of the new post led him to apply. Spencer said Geffken’s resignation is a loss to the city. He credited Geffken with implementing the beginnings of the Act 47 financial recovery plan, and lauded him for numerous projects – among them cutting the cost of the planned new sewage treatment plant by hundreds of millions of dollars. Geffken said he was successful only because a number of decent people worked hard to make the city a success. City Council President Francis G. Acosta also said the move will be a loss for the city. Acosta said Geffken was holding city government together with his knowledge and expertise.
Roseville, Michigan (population 47,299): With a 7-0 vote, members of the Roseville City Council approved a one-year contract Tuesday evening with new city manager Scott Adkins, according to the Detroit Free Press. Adkins has been superintendent of the City of St. Clair since 2006, and he was one of seven finalists — including the city manager of Grosse Pointe Shores and village manager of Beverly Hills — interviewed by Roseville officials about two weeks ago. Beverly Hills manager Chris Wilson was offered the job first but turned down the contract, Roseville Mayor John Chirkun said after Tuesday night’s meeting. Then Adkins accepted the post for $94,000 a year — $8,000 less than outgoing Roseville City Manager Steve Truman. Adkins is to start March 6, replacing Truman, who has been a city employee for 30 years, officials said.
Manassas, Virginia (population 37,821): The city of Manassas announced a new city manager this week, according to The Washington Post. After a nationwide search, weeks of interviews and dozens of candidates considered for the job, the City Council plans to hire state official John A. Budesky to succeed former longtime manager Lawrence D. Hughes. Budesky, 39, will take over the job March 5. Pat Weiler, who heads the city’s finance department, is serving as interim manager. Budesky is currently the executive director of the Virginia Workers Compensation Commission, which administers and oversees the state’s compensation benefits. Budesky has been a local government administrator for 16 years in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. He is the former county administrator for New Kent County, Va., an assistant city administrator for Hagerstown, Md., and a department head in Washington County, Md. City council members said Budesky was chosen for his local government experience and his enthusiasm to be a part of Manassas. Budesky, who has two young children and plans to move to the city as soon as possible from Mechanicsville, said that he looks forward to getting to know and understand the city’s departments and personnel. He said immediate priorities are public safety and ensuring a good education for city children.
Montville Township, New Jersey (population 21,528): Belleville’s township manager has been selected as Montville Township’s next administrator, according to the Belleville Patch. Victor Canning, a Montville Township resident, officially starts in the new position March 15, although Belleville Mayor Ray Kimble said late Wednesday morning it was “premature” to comment because Canning had not yet submitted a resignation letter. Canning told the Montville Patch he is looking forward to working in the town where he has lived for the past 10 years and is raising his family. Montville Mayor Tim Braden said Canning’s references were impeccable. Before moving to Montville, Canning lived in Belleville, where he served as a councilman and as mayor before becoming the township’s manager. The former Belleville Police Department officer has served in recent role for about seven years. The Montville Township Committee approved his appointment Tuesday night and welcomed him to the position. Committeeman Scott Gallopo said he fully supports Canning as township administrator, but cast the lone “no” vote on the resolution because he thought out of principle the search process should have been more thorough. Canning is a member of the Montville Township Planning Board, but won’t be able to serve in that capacity once he is in the town’s top management job. The township had 34 applicants and conducted five interviews after former administrator Frank Bastone retired in December, Committeewoman Deb Nielson said. The selection process was unanimously approved by the Township Committee, Braden said. Township management specialist Adam Brewer has taken on the township administrator’s responsibilities on an interim basis since Bastone’s retirement while the search was conducted.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire (population 21,233): The new town administrator was officially sworn in Monday night at the town council meeting, taking his place as the third administrator in Portsmouth’s history, according to East Bay Newspapers. John C. Klimm, most recently town manager in Barnstable, Mass., was sworn in by Town Clerk Kathleen Viera Beaudoin after the council voted unanimously to ratify his appointment. He replaced interim administrator David Dolce, who has served in the position since late August. Mr. Klimm’s predecessor, Robert Driscoll, held the administrator job for 21 years. The town’s first administrator, John O. Thayer, served from 1973 to 1990. The council also voted unanimously to accept the employee agreement between the town and Mr. Klimm. Under the agreement, Mr. Klimm is contracted to the town for three years (with the option of either party terminating the agreement with 60 days notice) with a starting salary of $126,000 per year. In July the council set a $110,000 salary limit for the new administrator (when Mr. Driscoll left he was making $105,044 plus $10,504 longevity), but negotiations raised that amount while cutting spending in other contract aspects, said President Joseph Robicheau. Moving from Barnstable, Mr. Robicheau said that the salary increase had to do with “how he’ll maintain himself here.” Overall the new contract should be cheaper than that of Mr. Driscoll, he said. For one, no longevity will be paid to Mr. Klimm. He will also be in a defined contribution plan (such as a 401k) rather than a defined pension plan. He has been granted three weeks of vacation and 15 sick days per year, but vacation days are not allowed to accrue, and sick days can only carry over to the next year by 60 days. No time can be sold back to the town. This would equal a savings because under the previous administrator contract, a portion of his unused days could accrue year to year and at the end of his term be sold back to the town, said Finance Director David Faucher. When Mr. Driscoll retired, his 21 years of unused days equaled a payback of $41,714 ($25,047 for accrued sick leave and $16,667 for accrued vacation leave). During the evening, the council recognized Mr. Dolce, returning now to his position as tax assessor, for his service over the last six months. Mr. Dolce thanked the council and town hall staff for having patience and cooperation during his tenure, especially the tax staff who took on extra responsibility during that time.
Dixon, California (population 18,351): Months of searching ended Tuesday for the city of Dixon, which now has a city manager at the helm, according to The Reporter. The Dixon City Council voted unanimously in favor of hiring Jim Lindley, who will leave his current position as city manager in Dunsmuir to fill the post in Dixon on March 12. Councilman Dane Besneatte said a unanimous decision from the council is “significant” and hopefully an end to a “revolving door” at City Hall. Mayor Jack Batchelor said Lindley is an “outstanding person to come in and move this city forward.” Lindley admitted that while Dunsmuir is sad to see him go, this is the best step for him. Lindley said he was impressed with the thorough job by the council and the city in the recruitment process. It will cost Dixon $159,796 per year to have Lindley on board. The four-year contract allows Lindley a $126,000 base salary, a monthly $400 auto allowance, 104 hours of leave time that includes 80 hours of vacation, inclusion into the city’s furlough program, which will reduce his base salary by 4.6 percent, and a severance clause that gives him six months of pay and benefits should he be terminated without cause. The total compensation package, according to the city, is $169,911 per year. However, minus his state retirement contribution, that figure drops to $159,796. Lindley will fill the position left by Nancy Huston, who took a job as Solano County’s assistant county administrator in June. In the interim, Dixon Police Chief Jon Cox stepped up to temporarily serve as the city’s top administrator. Batchelor lauded Cox for his service as interim city manager. During the interim, the empty city manager position faced scrutiny from the community, staff and council. Everything was up for discussion, including the qualities the new leader should possess to salary and benefits. Additionally, a recruitment firm was hired, and then an 11-member citizens committee confirmed to interview finalists. After interviewing several candidates, Lindley, with his depth of experience, humor and candor, rose to the top. Lindley spent 20 years in the private sector, later served as a mayor and a city councilman in Hesperia and worked in various facets of government administration in San Bernardino County. For the last 20 months, he has been Dunsmuir’s city manager. He’s knowledgeable on water and wastewater issues, and the city’s proposed Sunshine Ordinance, a policy to make local government more transparent to the public.
El Segundo, California (population 16,654): A few months after he was hired as El Segundo’s city manager, Doug Willmore learned that his efforts to force Chevron, the town’s oldest employer, to pay higher taxes had made him some enemies, according to the Los Angeles Times. He found a note on his car reminding him this was a Chevron town. “Beat it,” the note concluded. Last week, a divided City Council took that advice and fired him, less than 10 months after appointing him to the job. Willmore said that the council gave no reason for his dismissal but that he felt the council had fired him “in retaliation about Chevron.” Willmore is entitled to half his annual salary of $218,000 as severance, if he signs an agreement not to sue. On Tuesday, his attorney, Bradley Gage, said he was about to file a claim against the city, the first step toward a lawsuit. Late last year, Mayor Eric Busch asked Willmore to examine the acreage tax Chevron paid on its refinery, the largest in the state. Willmore found that for decades Chevron had paid millions of dollars less in taxes than did other refineries in the state. After taking preliminary steps to place a measure on the ballot to increase Chevron’s tax, supporters didn’t have the four council votes they needed to send it to voters. Instead, the council and Chevron agreed to negotiate. Rod Spackman, Chevron’s manager of policy, government and public affairs for the L.A. Basin, denied that the oil company was involved in Willmore’s ouster. Councilman Carl Jacobson, one of three council members who voted to fire Willmore, said the city manager’s dismissal was not related to Chevron. Councilman Don Brann, who supported increased taxes on Chevron but voted to get rid of Willmore, said he had other reasons for wanting the administrator fired. Because of the potential lawsuit, he declined to go into details. The Chevron issue, he said, “may have been the final straw” for some of his colleagues. He gave Willmore credit for attracting businesses to town. Willmore’s relations with Chevron got off to a rocky start after he arrived in April from Utah, where he had been chief executive of Salt Lake County. Gage, Willmore’s attorney, said his client was covered under the state’s whistleblower law.
Red Bluff, California (population 14,076): City Manager Martin Nichols, whose last day will be Friday, is satisfied that he is leaving the city better than he found it, according to the Red Bluff Daily News. Helping the city through the recession is his biggest accomplishment, but it’s an accomplishment but in a negative sense, Nichols said. It’s hard to be proud of laying off people and reducing services. Mayor Forrest Flynn said he has worked with every city manager since the early ’80s, but none of them surpass Marty Nichols. Nichols said though he has done plenty it never feels quite done. He’s leaving behind a long list of projects for incoming City Manager Richard Crabtree. The list already contains more than 40 items, but on the top of the list is the acquisition of the Red Bluff Recreation Area for an off-highway vehicle park. Continuing to develop a relationship with the Red Bluff-Tehama County Chamber of Commerce is a priority. The city and chamber need to really define what the chamber is doing for the city when the city gives the chamber money, he said. The community has not always seen Nichols as the best leader, but those working closest to him say otherwise. Nichols said the bad public image is something that comes with being city manager. The city manager is the messenger of bad news, he said. Being the city manager is a lot of responsibility. Not only is he responsible for the day-to-day operation of the city but he has ethical decisions to make and has to deliver the good news and the bad news. In all of this, one lesson he’s learn is mistakes will be made, but you just have to own up to them. Not doing so could be chaos. Nichols will leave Red Bluff to become the chief administrative officer in Lassen County. It’s a position he is familiar with and is looking forward to returning. Nichols worked as the chief administrative officer in Butte County in the ’80s, and later held similar roles in Marin County. He was head of a private firm, Government Solutions, that held joint powers authorities in Marin before he came to Red Bluff. Brown said five years ago when the council was choosing a city manager, Nichols was not his first choice. He thought Nichols was too focused on regional issues, but Nichols being regionally minded has been to Red Bluff’s advantage as the city continues to grow. Nichols said in going back to county administration he hopes to work more closely with the Legislature in returning some of the policy making decisions back to local government. The state has been making a lot of changes, from prisoner realignment to social services, that will trickle down to counties and cities, he said. Nichols will have about 2 1/2 weeks off before he starts his new job, and he’ll be spending that time with his grandchildren as well as searching for a place to live. He plans to keep his home in Paradise but will live in Susanville during the week. He and wife Sharon have already started looking for a place. At 65, Nichols said he is not ready to retire from local government anytime soon. But when he does think about retirement he thinks he would like to serve on a city council or be on the other side of things.
Fairmont, Minnesota (population 10,666): Mike Humpal will be Fairmont’s next city administrator, according to the Fairmont Sentinel. On Monday, the City Council approved naming Humpal to replace Jim Zarling when he retires in May, but not without contention. Voting in favor of appointing the assistant city administrator to the position were Joe Kallemeyn and Wes Clerc, while Andy Lucas and Darin Rahm voted against. Harlan Gorath abstained, leaving Mayor Randy Quiring to cast the deciding vote. All council members previously said Humpal is likely the best person for the job. Lucas and Rahm, however, wanted to interview outside candidates if, for no other reason, Lucas said, than to reinforce that Humpal is the right person for the job. Rahm didn’t think promoting internally would be fair to other qualified individuals. Gorath was concerned about setting precedent, though the city has a policy of promoting internally when a qualified candidate is available for a position. Humpal was on the agenda for Monday’s meeting to interview for the job. The only ones who questioned him were Kallemeyn, Clerc and Quiring. Rahm said he felt bad about putting Humpal on the spot by asking him questions he might not be prepared to answer, and Gorath also felt Monday’s forum was not the appropriate arena to interview Humpal. He previously said he wanted a closed meeting to conduct interviews, something not legal under open meeting laws. The only citizen at the meeting who voiced a query was Amy Paradis, who asked if Humpal thought it was “fair not interviewing against anybody?” Humpal said if qualified people are working for the city, then it would be fair to interview and hire them if they could successfully perform the job. In this case, Humpal is the only person employed by the city who is qualified for the joint position of city administrator and economic development director. Though the two opposing sides were equally adamant and frustrated with each other at times, when the meeting adjourned, the council and management team ended the night in handshakes all around. Besides making a presentation Monday, Humpal submitted his resume, which shows he completed his master’s degree in public administration in 1990 through the University of Nebraska and is one of eight certified economic developers through the International Economic Development Council.
Selah, Washington (population 7,147): Selah’s top administrator and the police chief have agreed to leave their jobs under settlement agreements approved by the City Council Tuesday night, according to the Yakima Herald-Republic. Supervisor Frank Sweet will be paid about $134,000 — a year’s pay, plus about $30,000 to cover health insurance and other benefits. Chief Stacy Dwarshius will remain on administrative leave through July 31, which qualifies him for a somewhat higher pension. That six-month period works out to about $40,000. Mayor John Gawlik, who was elected to replace Bob Jones, sought to remove both men. He said he did not believe he could work with Sweet, who spent most of his tenure at Selah under Jones, whom Gawlik defeated in November. He has not disclosed his reasons for seeking the removal of Dwarshius. Under Selah’s form of government, Gawlik can hire and fire employees, though dismissals may have been open to a legal challenge under the personnel policy. The councilmen unanimously approved the separation agreements without comment. Gawlik said after the council meeting that the council wanted to move on. Sweet and Dwarshius both earlier said they wanted to keep working for the city. After Gawlik was elected, Sweet had proposed a four-year settlement agreement worth about $500,000 for himself and a six-month agreement for Dwarshius. The council never acted on those requests, though they and others thought Sweet’s request was extraordinary. Sweet said he made the proposal in the hope that Gawlik would give him time to see that they could work together. Gawlik said he hopes to select an interim supervisor while he considers how he wants to recruit for the permanent position. Sgt. Rick Hayes may continue as acting police chief, but Gawlik said Hayes has indicated he does not want the full-time job.
Groesbeck, Texas (population 7,057): A long time City Administrator announced her resignation Tuesday at a city council meeting in Groesbeck, according to Our Town Texas. Martha Stanton worked for the city for 38 years. City Council members in Groesbeck accepted Stanton’s resignation Tuesday night. Stanton’s last day working with the city will be March 31. The Groesbeck resident plans to stay in town, and find something to do to keep her busy.
Lake Alfred, Florida (population 5,015): Ryan Leavengood is the new city manager of Lake Alfred, according to The Ledger. The City Commission voted unanimously Monday at a special meeting to hire him. The final contract calls for a $75,000 annual salary with raises possible after an annual review process. Initially, Leavengood had wanted $78,000 and the commission started at $67,500. The commission initially wanted not to pay severance pay for the first year but negotiated to pay three months’ salary and benefits as a severance package through Oct. 1, 2013, and four months current pay and benefits for the following year. It will also include any accrued sick leave, vacation and other accrued benefits. If he is terminated by a majority vote of the commission after Oct. 1, 2014, he will receive five months current salary and benefits, the maximum amount allowed by state law. If he leaves voluntarily, he will receive no severance and must give 30 days notice. Leavengood wanted a $500 per month car allowance to use his own vehicle but the city had not budgeted for that. Former City Manager Larry Harbuck drove a city car. Leavengood agreed to take $100 per month car allowance until Oct. 1, when the $500 monthly car allowance will be included in the 2012-2013 budget. Commissioners also agreed to pay up to $3,000 in moving expenses. Leavengood has six months to move into the city limits of Lake Alfred, a requirement in the city’s charter. Leavengood, the current Auburndale assistant manager, will begin his new job March 5.
Eagar, Arizona (population 4,885): After 20 years as town manager, Bill Greenwood announced to the council at their Feb. 7 meeting that he would be retiring as of April 28 of this year, according to the White Mountain Independent. He read his retirement letter to the council after a non-public session that was held at the beginning of their meeting. Greenwood said he was retiring with mixed emotions and that there were many factors in his decision. He said he was worn out and out of step with today’s technology needs. He stated he would be willing to assist the new manager in any way he could at the council’s discretion. Mayor Kim Holaway moved that Greenwood be given $20,000, $1,000 for each year of service, as severance pay. The council approved the motion unanimously. Several members of the council expressed their appreciation of Greenwood’s service and the audience stood and applauded him.
Southport, North Carolina (population 3,004): Southport has selected a new city manager one year after the previous manager was ousted, according to the StarNews. Patrick Thomas, the current town manager of Swansboro (population 1,902), will start his new position April 16. The interim city manager, Regina Alexander, will resume her duties as town clerk when Thomas takes over. Alan Thornton, the previous city manager, was asked to resign in February 2011. Thomas has 27 years experience in local government and community management, including being manager in Farmville, Jacksonville, Surf City and Swansboro. He was previously editor and publisher of The Pender Post community newspaper in Pender County and has 11 years of experience in the private sector. Thomas previously served as a board member for the Cape Fear United Way and for the Cape Fear Community College Foundation, was named a Citizen Planner of the Year by the Cape Fear Council of Governments and was awarded the Razor Walker Award for contributions to young people by the University of North Carolina at Wilmington’s Watson School of Education, according to the board. The new manager said he hopes to create an open dialogue with residents in order get to know the community quickly.
Flandreau, South Dakota (population 2,341): The Flandreau City Council has finally found a new City Administrator after Chuck Jones tendered his resignation last September, according to the Moody County Enterprise. The council voted to appoint Donald Whitman of Caney, Kan. as the new City Administrator for the City of Flandreau at a special session held on Jan. 30. Whitman is expected to start at the beginning of April and currently works as the City Administrator for Caney. The city administrator’s duties usually include overseeing the policies, departments and procedures of the city, amongst others, but details of the position are unknown as Deputy City Attorney Paul Lewis, authorized by the council, is drafting the terms and conditions of the position.
Greensburg, Kansas (population 777): Eddy Truelove is the newest Greensburg city administrator, according to the Kiowa County Signal. Truelove came to Greensburg a couple of weeks ago to tour the city, meet city officials and interview for what would ultimately become his new job. He says that he was pleasantly surprised at how welcoming his hosts were. The city has entered a period of growth as of late and has a number of high profile projects in the near future including the water treatment plant, the airport, street projects and a number of complex deals including the BTI sewer line. Though Truelove has a master’s degree in public administration, he has never served as a city administrator. When asked about his relative inexperience in the city admin’s seat, Truelove said he thinks he is well equipped for the challenges. Well aware of workload, Truelove said he has taken an interest in all of the city’s current projects, which he feels are all tied to community growth. Truelove will move his family to Greensburg, and has begun searching for a house in town. Truelove will be the fifth Greensburg city administrator in one year. Following the departure of Steve Hewitt in early 2011, the city hired Dennis McKinney as an interim administrator until May when the city hired Sheila Magee. Magee only lasted less than three months and was fired abruptly in July. Jay P. Newton has been interim city administrator while the city searched for a permanent replacement.